The results of measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses. Big Bang nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions , it principally produced deuterium, helium-4, and lithium. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher, and Robert Herman.

Those puzzling JWST images can be explained by ‘bursty’ star formation

We simply lack the required evidence to have a reasonable belief one way or the other regarding whether time regresses infinitely or not. Ultimately it is a matter for scientists and mathematicians and since they are far from decided, we are not justified in claiming an infinite regress is possible or impossible. Cosmological arguments therefore fail as they have the burden of proof. They are making a positive claim about what exists on the assumption of an infinite regress’ impossibility.

“Thanks to this glorious telescope, we’re now getting spectra … for hundreds of galaxies at once,” said astronomer Emma Curtis-Lake of the University of Hertfordshire in England.

We have experienced many causal interactions, all of which involved the constant conjunction of cause and effect. It is possible that this may be false, that in some cases the causal principle may not hold.

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At a key moment about one second after the Big Bang, nucleosynthesis took place and created deuterium along with the light elements helium and lithium. After some 10,000 years, the temperature of the universe cooled to the point where massive particles contributed more to the universe’s overall energy density than light and other radiation, which had dominated until then. This turned on gravity as a key player, and the little irregularities in the density of matter were magnified into structures as the universe expanded. Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum.

Perhaps this process could even spark another Big Bang, the thinking went. It is not only the big cosmic picture that we have come to understand. A series of discoveries has also revealed the history of the elemental building blocks that make up stars, planets and even our own bodies. Astronomers had long debated these questions when, in the middle of the 20th century, two competing theories proposed very different answers. The “hot big bang” model said the cosmos began extremely small, hot and dense and then cooled and spread out over time.